What Are Carcinomas?
Carcinoma is a type of malignancy that begins in specific cells that form the tissue lining certain organs in the body, like the kidneys, liver, and on the skin. Cancerous cells are classified according to the kind of cell they form in because different cells throughout the body perform different functions. Five primary types of cancers can occur in an individual's body, including carcinoma, lymphoma and myeloma, spinal cord and brain cancers, leukemia, and sarcoma. Carcinoma only originates in the epithelial tissues of the body. The most prevalent type of cancer in the population is carcinoma. Different types of carcinoma are grouped by the types of epithelial cells in which they originate. Carcinomas may be diagnosed using a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subtotal removal of a single node, or a core biopsy. Treatment methods for carcinoma vary and depend on the site of the tumor.
Where Carcinomas Develop
There are numerous locations around an individual's body where this type of cancer can develop. Carcinomas only develop in tissues made up of specific cells referred to as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells are the cells that form an individual's skin tissues on the outside of the body. Epithelial cells also form the lining and inside of all body organs, and these cells also line all of the cavities in the body. Carcinomas often develop in the tissues that line the abdominal cavity. Carcinomas are also commonly known to develop in an individual's sun-exposed skin tissues. The kidneys are organs often implicated when it comes to the development of carcinoma, as it is the most common form of kidney cancer. Carcinomas tend to develop frequently in the tissues of an individual's breast or cervix. Heavy smokers have a prevalence of carcinoma development in the tissues lining their bladder or the delicate tissues that form the inside of their lungs. Carcinomas are a common occurrence in males, particularly in the tissues lining the colon or the tissues that make up the prostate.
Types Of Carcinomas
Carcinomas can be further subcategorized into groups based on the location where they originate since epithelial cells are not specific to any one part of the body. Two types of carcinoma can develop in an individual's skin. Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the flat, thin cells referred to as squamous cells and can occur in the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive tract. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of carcinoma that affects the deepest layer of skin, which is made up of basal cells. Renal cell carcinoma is a carcinoma that affects an individual's kidney tissues and originates in the kidney tubules. Invasive ductal carcinoma is a type of carcinoma that develops and grows in the cells that line an individual's milk duct in the breast. An adrenocortical carcinoma affects an individual's adrenal glands, and a thyroid carcinoma affects their thyroid tissues. An adenocarcinoma is a carcinoma that forms in the adenomatous cells or the glandular cells that produce fluids. Transitional cell carcinomas form in tissues that can stretch, such as those that make up the bladder.
Symptoms Of Carcinomas
Symptoms of carcinomas can vary based on the location of the tumor, but certain ones may manifest more often than others. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma can produce symptoms such as open sores, pink growths, red patches, scars, bumps that look like warts, or shiny bumps on the skin. The most common symptoms that occur in renal cell carcinoma include flank pain, anemia, fever, hematuria, abdominal mass, hypertension, and abnormal liver function. Individuals affected by invasive ductal carcinoma may experience a lump in the breast, breast rash, breast swelling, pain in the breast, dimpling around the nipple, discharge from the nipple, inverted nipple shape, redness of the breast, and thickening of the breast skin. Adrenocortical carcinoma can cause increased body hair, early puberty, enlarged breast tissues in males, high blood pressure, weight gain, high blood sugar, muscle weakness, and bruising. Adenocarcinoma can cause symptoms such as coughing, bloody mucus, weakness, hoarseness, weight loss, exhaustion, headaches, vomiting, blurred vision, seizures, and personality changes.
What Causes Them
Several factors can influence the origination of an individual's carcinoma as well as what causes them to develop. Carcinomas develop as a result of DNA mutations that cause changes in cell growth, cell division, and cell apoptosis, just like any other form of cancer. These mutations are more likely to occur in individuals who use a tanning bed often, frequently spend time in the sun, experience multiple sunburns, smoke cigarettes, and use other forms of tobacco. Individuals who have been exposed to radioactive materials and particles common in certain occupations are more likely to develop carcinomas than others. Individuals infected with the helicobacter pylori virus, hepatitis virus, human papillomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus have a higher risk of developing carcinomas than others. There are also genetic factors that may increase an individual's risk of developing carcinomas because they cause problems with certain substances that would help a healthy individual fight off precancerous and cancerous cells.
Treatment options for carcinomas may vary due to the many sites in the body where they may develop, and the organs in the body they can affect. The most common way to treat carcinomas is with a surgical procedure to remove the cancerous tissue and a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. If the carcinoma is in a complex location or is very large, the patient may be treated with radiation therapy to target and shrink the tumor before undergoing chemotherapy or a surgical procedure to remove it. Chemotherapy can be used in patients who have carcinomas that have spread to other regions or cannot be removed with surgery. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with radiation therapy in cases where the carcinoma is not able to be entirely removed with the use of excision surgery. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be utilized following a patient's carcinoma excision surgery if it is suspected the surgery left behind cancerous cells.