Certain infections, such as those resulting from streptococci, pneumococci, and Escherichia coli bacteria, are known to trigger neutrophilia. Fungal infections known to cause it stem from the fungi known as Candida albicans and coccidiosis immitis. Viral infections that cause this condition include rabies, herpes zoster, varicella, poliomyelitis, and smallpox. Parasites can also cause this condition, but typically less often than viruses and bacteria. An individual who has an abscess, appendicitis, meningitis, and tonsillitis can also experience neutrophilia due to their infection.
Since neutrophils are the first white blood cells in the immune system to reach the site of cellular damage, they can be overproduced in patients when their infection induces such a reactive process in the body. A mild elevation in these blood cells during acute infection is beneficial. However, anything greater can cause the blood to become too thick and produce serious complications.
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