A common increased risk factor that implicates a good number of individuals is diabetes, a disease characterized by persistent high blood glucose levels and insulin resistance. An increased risk of colon cancer is associated with type 2 diabetes more than it is with type 1 diabetes. The body produces insulin, but the tissues do not respond to it appropriately in an individual with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes often develop chronic compensatory hyperinsulinemia. This type of diabetes has a high correlation with a high-calorie diet, excess abdominal fat, and increased body weight.
Carcinogenesis in type 2 diabetes patients is exacerbated by the interactions of insulin-like growth factor-1. The interaction of the insulin hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors can prolong cell survival and stimulate the proliferation of cells. Both of these characteristics are important for the formation of malignancy in a patient's tissues. Diabetes also promotes inflammation in the body through several mechanisms, which compounds the risk of developing colon cancer.