The kidneys are located in the upper back region on either side of the spine. Adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and are both encapsulated along with fat inside of a fibrous layer called Gerota's fascia. Kidneys filter the blood of waste products, salt, and excess water. Kidneys produce hormones that influence blood pressure, red blood cell production, and electrolyte regulation. Kidney cancer is a malignancy that originates in the kidney tissues. The most common form of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma is a kidney cancer that begins in the renal pelvis lining or tissue where the ureters merge into the kidneys. Wilms' tumor is a kidney cancer almost exclusive to children. A renal sarcoma is a rare malignancy that originates in the connective tissues or blood vessels of the kidney.
Blood In Urine
An individual who has blood in their urine, also called hematuria, may be affected by kidney cancer. Blood in the urine can be visible with the naked eye, called gross hematuria, or could only be visible at the microscopic level, which is called microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria in an affected individual appears as urine with a cola, red, or pink coloring to it. It does not take a significant amount of blood to change the color of an individual's urine. Hematuria that occurs due to kidney cancer often does not manifest when the malignancy is in its early stages and easy to treat.
Kidney cancer can metastasize to the bladder, prostate, uterus, and other neighboring structures before it produces this symptom and others. Kidney cancer that infiltrates to the inner parts of the kidney can cause damage to thousands of the tiny blood filters, allowing for the leakage of red blood cells into the urine. Kidney cancer can spread into the ureters and bladder, causing damage to its lining and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygenated blood. This type of damage from cancerous growth can cause an individual to have blood in their urine.