Hyperventilation develops when an individual breathes too quickly. The condition results in a patient exhaling more than they inhale, and this reduces the levels of carbon dioxide in the body. Symptoms of hyperventilation include dry mouth, muscle spasms, numbness or tingling in the hands, a rapid heartbeat, dizziness, weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Occasionally, an episode of hyperventilation may last as long as twenty to thirty minutes.
To treat hyperventilation, patients may wish to try to slow their respiration rate by breathing into a paper bag, breathing through pursed lips, and breathing through the nostrils or diaphragm. If bleeding, pain, or fever are present along with hyperventilation, patients should seek emergency medical care.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication that may develop in patients who have diabetes. The condition results from an excessive amount of ketones in the bloodstream. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis may lead to a diabetic coma, which can be fatal. Therefore, all patients with diabetes should be familiar with the symptoms of ketoacidosis and seek urgent treatment if they suspect they may have the condition.
Possible symptoms, aside from hyperventilation, include fatigue, excessive thirst, blurred vision, confusion, an increase in urination, and abdominal pain. Diabetes patients should monitor their blood sugar regularly and take all prescribed medications. Family members of individuals with diabetes should also be aware of the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis and take action if they observe these signs in their loved one.