A hemorrhoidectomy is a surgical procedure utilized to eliminate hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids is an anorectal disorder where the lower veins in an individual's anus become swollen and inflamed. Most surgeries used to remove hemorrhoids take place in a surgery center and are considered outpatient procedures. Imaging technology may be used to assist a surgeon when they are performing a hemorrhoidectomy. While a hemorrhoidectomy is known to be the most effective way to treat hemorrhoids, it also presents the highest risk of complications.
There are several types of hemorrhoidectomy procedures, including an open hemorrhoidectomy, closed hemorrhoidectomy, rubber band ligation, lateral internal sphincterotomy, and stapled hemorrhoidectomy. The type of hemorrhoidectomy done on a patient is dependent upon the characteristics of their hemorrhoids and the symptoms they are experiencing.
What Are Hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids are inflamed and swollen venous blood vessels located in an affected individual's lower rectum and anus. Hemorrhoids in a healthy individual serve a functional purpose and typically do not cause any issues. However, some individuals have veins in this location with walls that stretch out too much. These venous walls become too thin and allow them to bulge and swell. Piles is a term used to describe hemorrhoids that have become swollen and inflamed.
There are two types of hemorrhoids. Internal hemorrhoids refer to hemorrhoids located inside of the rectum that cannot be seen or felt externally. External hemorrhoids refer to hemorrhoids located just underneath an individual's skin that surrounds their anus. External hemorrhoids are the type of hemorrhoids that cause an affected individual to feel the most pain because of the high concentration of pain-sensing nerves in that particular location. Hemorrhoids may enlarge and bulge to the point where they are outside of the patient's anal sphincter or prolapse. Hemorrhoids can cause anal bleeding and pain when defecating. Several complications can also develop if hemorrhoids do not heal and are left untreated.