Aortic valve stenosis may develop in an individual with a heart defect due to the secondary effects their defect has on their cardiovascular tissues. Numerous congenital heart defects can cause an individual to develop aortic stenosis. An individual may have an obstruction in the muscle tissue underneath the aortic valve that causes it to be unable to open and close properly. Another common congenital defect associated with aortic valve stenosis involves an abnormal narrowing of the aorta directly above the valve.
Other heart defects that can result in aortic valve stenosis can involve an incorrect number of aortic valve leaflets, such as two or four leaflets instead of three. A two leaflet aortic valve is referred to as a bicuspid aortic valve. This causes the leaflets to be thicker and less flexible than they normally would be to compensate for the missing leaflet. Another heart defect that results in aortic valve stenosis involves the inappropriate fusion of the lines that separate the leaflets or the commissures. When the leaflets are abnormally fused, it causes the valve to be unable to open fully, resulting in aortic stenosis.
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