Mesenteric ischemia is a condition that mainly affects the digestive system where blood flow to the intestines becomes restricted. The three arteries that provide oxygen-rich blood to the small and large intestines are called mesenteric arteries. When these arteries become blocked or narrowed, the amount of oxygen-rich blood traveling to the digestive tract is reduced. When this occurs, a section of the intestines cannot get an adequate amount of oxygen. Insufficient supply of oxygen causes cell death and permanent damage to intestinal tissues. Mesenteric ischemia can be caused by cardiovascular disease, blood clots, blood vessel surgery, or misuse of certain substances. There are two types of mesenteric ischemia. Acute ischemia is typically caused by blood clots, and symptoms appear suddenly. Chronic ischemia develops gradually, and it is usually caused by atherosclerosis. Common symptoms of mesenteric ischemia include diarrhea, nausea, fever, vomiting, bloating, and abdominal pain.
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A bowel resection is a surgical procedure used to remove any part of the bowel, including the rectum, large intestine, and small intestine. A bowel resection is also commonly known as a partial colectomy. When acute mesenteric ischemia occurs, a bowel resection is used to remove any scar tissue, blood clots, and regions of the dead intestine. There are three main ways a bowel resection can be performed. Open resection is a surgical procedure in which the surgeon uses traditional incisions and surgical tools to remove a section of the intestine manually. Laparoscopic resection is a surgical procedure in which a laparoscope is inserted into and used with a series of small incisions to remove a part of the intestine manually. A robot-assisted laparoscopic resection is a surgical procedure where a surgeon-controlled robot performs the surgical procedure with robot attached instruments. When areas of intestinal scarring or dead tissues are not removed, the bowel may become further obstructed, or toxicity can occur.
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